Phosphoric Acid is a colorless, odorless phosphorus inorganic acid, available in either liquid or crystalline solid form. As a solid, it has a density of 1.834 g / cm3. At 42.35°C or above, the solid will melt into an 85% aqueous solution.
Phosphoric acid is used as a sequestering agent which can bind many divalent cations, including Fe++, Cu++, Ca++, and Mg++.
H3P04 is not a particularly strong acid. It is stronger than acetic acid but weaker than sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid. Each successive dissociation step occurs with decreasing ease. Salts of phosphoric acid can be formed by replacing one, two or three of the hydrogen ions. For example, NaH2PO4, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, can be formed by reacting one mole of phosphoric acid with one mole of sodium hydroxide.
Effects on Aquatic Ecosystems
Increasing the phosphate concentration in surface waters also enhances the growth of aquatic plant life. Run-off from fertilized farmlands can stimulate plant growth in lakes and streams. In such cases, Phosphoric Acid concentrations accumulated in wastewater have been accused of causing eutrophication, meaning, accelerated growth of algae, which can harm aquatic life. To reduce the threat of lake eutrophication, many local authorities have banned the use of phosphates in detergents. However, when used in a controlled environment, phosphoric acid will produce good yields and will not cause any damage to the ecosystem.
Commercial Uses of Phosphoric Acid
H3P04 is used primarily in the manufacture of fertilizers, as one of the most essential elements required for plant growth. Organic phosphates are the compounds that provide the energy for most of the chemical reactions that occur in living cells.
H3P04 is used to produce water softeners. Water softeners remove Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions from hard water. If not removed, these hard-water ions react with soap and form insoluble deposits that cling to laundry and the washing machine. Phosphates produced from phosphoric acid are used extensively as water softeners (builders) in detergents. phosphoric acid which is used in stone-cleaning chemicals. In the steel industry, Phosphoric acid is used to clean and rust-proof steel.
Phosphoric acid is a constituent in bone and teeth and plays a role in many metabolic processes. In addition, it is used by dentists as an etching solution, to clean and roughen the surfaces of teeth where dental appliances or fillings is to be placed.
Food and Beverages
In the food industry, Phosphoric acid is used as a flavoring agent, providing a tart, acidic flavor to carbonated beverages such as Coca-Cola and beer, as well as in jams, jellies, and cheeses.
Where to Get Phosphoric Acid
You can get H3PO4 on Amazon. Make sure you use food-grade products with a high purity score like these: